Information

Amirkhan grape: one of the varieties suitable for regions with harsh climates

Amirkhan grape: one of the varieties suitable for regions with harsh climates


Amirkhan grape is an early ripening table grape. The variety is not outstanding, but due to its simplicity and resistance to cold weather, it is zoned not only in the European part of our country, but also in Siberia and the Far East. Amirkhan is a common sweet grape for summer consumption with average popularity.

Amirkhan grape cultivation history

The Amirkhan grape was bred in the Kuban, in the city of Novocherkassk, at the VNIIViV named after Ya.I. Potapenko, where they have been breeding grapes for a very long time. The work of the institute is aimed at obtaining new hybrid forms that can grow in regions with a harsh climate. And since there are a lot of amateur winegrowers in the Kuban, there are no problems with testing new varieties, their comprehensive study does not arise.

The All-Russian Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking was organized in the pre-war years. The varieties obtained at the institute are used for further breeding work in the same place, as well as by winegrowers in many countries. And such as Rapture, Talisman, Victoria and other outstanding hybrid forms are still widely used by many amateur breeders to develop the latest grape varieties.

In 1958, grape variety testing was organized at the state level. Since then, the institute has transferred 77 varieties for testing, including 52 interspecific hybrids. The State Register of Breeding Achievements Permitted for Use includes 20 varieties of VNIIViV selection. The employees of the institute themselves consider the best varieties to be Delight, Agat Donskoy, Cabernet Severny, Druzhba, Platovsky, Finist, etc. The Amirkhan variety was not included in this list. Apparently, in comparison with other varieties, the creators themselves did not see any special advantages in Amirkhan.

Amirkhan was created by hybridization of Yagdon and Pearl Saba varieties. As in all cases of successful hybridization, he took from the parents their best parental traits. But the main thing that Amirkhan can be proud of is that it can be grown in almost any climatic zone. Nowadays it is known practically throughout the entire territory of Russia, it is successfully grown in Siberia and the Far East.

Grape Pearl Saba - one of Amirkhan's parents

Description of the variety

Amirkhan grows as a small to medium-sized bush. The maturation and fruitfulness of the shoots are very high. Leaves are oval, slightly dissected, with solid edges. Declared frost resistance - up to -23 ... -25 aboutC, resistance to diseases at an average level. It easily propagates by well-lignified cuttings, but in the conditions of Siberia and the Altai Territory it is more often grown by grafting into even more frost-resistant varieties. Poorly keeps excess harvest, normalization is necessary: ​​without it, the ripening of berries is delayed, and their size is significantly reduced.

The yield of the variety is small: about 3 kg of berries are harvested from the bush. The variety is one of the early ones: it takes about four months from the moment the first buds open to harvest. Thus, in the southern regions of Russia, berries become edible in mid-August, and in the middle lane or southern regions of Belarus - closer to the beginning of autumn. In Siberia, it is considered a medium-ripening grape. The variety is self-fertile, does not require pollinators, therefore only one bush can be planted for fresh consumption, but for a large family and to extend the period of grapes eating, of course, one must have another 1-2 bushes of a different variety. The variety practically does not undergo peas, it is perfectly pollinated even at high humidity.

The bunches are mainly cylindrical-conical, of medium size: weight from 400 to 800 g. Some specimens can reach up to 1 kg. All berries are approximately the same size and are tightly pressed together. The bunches tolerate transportation well.

Perfectly ripe Amirkhan berries are not quite pink in color; only a small part of them crack

The berries are slightly elongated, have a thin skin and very juicy pulp. The seeds are very small. The size of the berries is average, the weight is from 4 to 6 g. The grapes have an excellent presentation. The taste is simple, sweet, and has a delicate hint of nutmeg. The sugar content in berries is 17–19%. The shelf life is quite long, one and a half to two months. The Amirkhan grape belongs to table varieties: it is mainly eaten fresh, but it can also be used for various preparations (such as juices, compotes, jam, raisins).

Characteristics of Amirkhan grapes

Having considered the description of Amirkhan grapes, we will try to give him a generalized description. Of course, for any reason, you can find the best and worst varieties, and if you compare Amirkhan with table varieties of early ripening, this variety does not stand out in anything special. The obvious advantages include:

  • good commercial qualities of bunches and their transportability;
  • great taste of sweet berries;
  • lack of peas;
  • self-fertility (does not require pollinators);
  • good preservation of the crop both on the bushes and in the refrigerator;
  • fast growth and good maturation of shoots;
  • ease of propagation by cuttings;
  • high frost resistance;
  • ease of care.

Experts-winegrowers consider the relative disadvantages of the variety:

  • medium degree of resistance to major grape diseases;
  • the need for qualified pruning and rationing of the crop, without which the berries are greatly reduced;
  • relatively low yield.

Features of planting and growing

Even novice summer residents can plant Amirkhan on their site, since caring for these grapes is easy. Neither the planting rules, nor the technology of caring for it differ from those in the case of other table varieties. Amirkhan is a classic table grape variety that requires light shelter for the winter. The ideal soil for growing grapes will be black soil, rich in minerals.

Like any grape, it loves sunny areas protected from cold winds. It is desirable that from the north side the bushes are protected by a house wall or a high blank fence. If this is not possible, many gardeners construct special protective screens from available tools.

The wall on the north side will reliably cover the grapes from cold winds

Amirkhan propagates very easily by cuttings, the survival rate of which is very high. Therefore, you can grow a seedling yourself, you can graft the acquired stalk into a stem of another, more wild variety, for example, Amur grapes. This is usually done in the Far East and Siberia. When choosing a seedling, the main thing is that it has well-developed roots. Immediately before planting, the seedling must be dipped into water for a day, slightly cutting off the tips of the roots so that it is saturated with moisture. You can plant grapes in autumn, but better in spring, in April.

For spring planting, the pit should be ready in the fall. And in advance, in the summer, the selected area must be dug up with fertilizers (compost, ash, superphosphate), removing perennial weeds. In the fall, you need to dig a large hole, at least 70 centimeters deep and in diameter. Drainage at the bottom (15–20 cm of rubble, pebbles or broken brick) is necessary for grapes. A layer of fertilizer mixed with good soil should be placed at the bottom of the pit. And above, where the young roots will be, only clean, fertile soil should be placed. At the bottom of the pit, a section of a thick pipe must be drawn in order to water the seedling directly into the roots in the first years.

For the first few years, a pipe led to the roots will provide ease of watering.

It is necessary to plant grapes deeply so that no more than two buds remain on the surface. Watering the seedling well, it is advisable to mulch the soil around it.

Caring for Amirkhan is simple: watering, feeding, garter shoots, pruning, preventive treatments. Everything, except for pruning, does not require special knowledge. It is imperative to learn pruning, without this it is impossible: the harvest will only get worse every year.

Excess water is not required, but periodic watering is necessary, especially in arid regions. The need for water is especially great during the growth of berries, but from the end of July watering of Amirkhan must be stopped: let the berries gain sugar and become tasty. In the case of dry autumn, winter watering is necessary shortly before the bushes are sheltered for the winter. It is generally recommended to feed with ash: annually bury 1-2 liters under the bush. Every two years in early spring - add two buckets of humus, burying them in shallow holes along the periphery of the bush. And 2-3 times during the summer it is necessary to carry out foliar dressing by spraying the leaves with weak fertilizer solutions. Before flowering and immediately after it, it is convenient to use mineral complex, when feeding after another 2-3 weeks, they are limited only to potassium and phosphorus.

Amirkhan has an average resistance to grape diseases, and for preventive purposes, early spring spraying with a solution of ferrous sulfate is required. Along the green cone, that is, at the moment the leaves begin to protrude from the buds, you can process it with 1% Bordeaux liquid. When several leaves appear on the shoots, it is necessary to spray the vineyard with Ridomil Gold.

They are trying to exclude copper-containing preparations from everyday use, but there are still not so many fungicides that are simpler and more reliable than the Bordeaux mixture.

In early spring, before the start of sap flow, only a small pruning of the bush can be done. It is much more convenient to prune grapes in late autumn, before hiding for the winter. But the main work on normalizing the bush from unnecessary shoots, breaking out the stepsons and, unfortunately, parts of the bunches must be done in the summer, while they are still green and small: on each shoot at Amirkhan, according to the characteristics of the variety, no more than two bunches should be left. If you work hard in the summer, it will be much easier in the fall. The total load on the bush should be no more than 40 eyes.

Green operations on grapes are easy and do not harm them.

Before the onset of frost (approximately at the end of October), all vines must be removed from the trellises, tied in bunches and covered with any insulating materials on the ground. In not very harsh regions, spruce or pine spruce branches, dry foliage of trees are suitable for this, in harsh climates they try to use non-woven materials or old rags. The trouble is that under them mice feel good, gnawing the bark of grapes. As a result, the entire above-ground part of the bush perishes. Therefore, in the case of a powerful shelter, it is imperative to lay out pesticides for rodents under it.

Unfortunately, high-quality videos have not even been filmed about such an unremarkable grape variety like Amirkhan, and what is offered on the network is not very convenient for viewing. The description in them is in a mechanical voice.

Video: Amirkhan grapes

Testimonials

Amirkhan is a grape variety that has not shown itself in anything special, but is grown over a large territory of our country. This is due to its unpretentiousness, early harvest time and good berry taste. Due to the low yield, the gardener may need to plant a couple more bushes of other varieties, but Amirkhan bears fruit regularly even without pollinators.

  • Print

Graduated from the Chemistry Department of Moscow State University in 1981. Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Associate Professor.

Rate the article:

(2 votes, average: 5 out of 5)

Share with your friends!


Description

The variety is characterized by an early ripening period. After 110 - 120 days from the moment the buds bloom, you can start picking ripe berries. Harvesting dates vary depending on the climatic characteristics of the area from the second half of August to September.

Resistant to frost and disease

Indicators of frost resistance are average. The bushes are able to survive temperatures as low as - 23 degrees Celsius. If you grow grapes in the northern regions, you will need to cover them for the winter.

Resistance to fungal diseases and rot is good. However, preventive treatments are recommended. This will not only protect the plant from dangerous infections and pests, but also prevent the risk of infection even before it occurs.

Bushes and flowers

The Amirkhan grape bushes are of medium size. The survival rate of cuttings and the maturity of the vine are good. The active formation of fertile buds can lead to an increase in the load. In order to prevent peas of berries and a decrease in yield, it is recommended to trim the eyes and excess shoots.

Bisexual flowers contribute to active pollination of the bush itself and neighboring plants. The yield is regular, average. Each vineyard can be harvested up to 3 kg.

Bunches and berries

Bunches of "Amirkhan" are large, weighing from 0.4 kg to 0.8 kg. The shape of the cylindro brushes is conical, and the structure is dense. Berries are oval, medium in size, weighing up to 6 g each. The pulp is juicy, sour - sweet with a simple taste and light nutmeg aroma. The skin is thin, poorly felt when eating. The color of the fruit is pale pink, and becomes more intense upon reaching full maturity. Ripe bunches can hang on the bush for a long time without losing their taste and marketability. The sugar content is about 19%.

Delicate berries on a background of light green foliage look attractive. Quite good commercial qualities, good transportability and satisfactory keeping quality allow growing the Amirkhan grape variety for personal purposes and for sale.


Watch the video: 20 Fruit Trees you can grow in the DESERT!