Cherry Revna: we grow a fruitful variety in our garden
Sweet cherries, along with cherries, are one of the most popular fruit trees in our country. Sweet cherries with a mild taste, rich in vitamins and microelements, are popular with many. The cold winters of central Russia are not terrible for cherries, since breeders have developed varieties with increased frost resistance.
Description of the variety of cherries Revna
Cherry variety Revna was obtained by specialists M.V. Kanshina and A.I. Astakhov at the All-Russian Research Institute of lupine (Bryansk region) from the variety Bryanskaya pink.
The Revna tree is of medium height and grows very quickly. The crown is in the form of a pyramid, not very thickened. The peculiarity of the tree is that the branches branch off from the main trunk at a large angle. The kidneys are also strongly deviated. They are of different shapes (ovoid vegetative and oval generative). The leaves are large, thick, dense, dark green, their base is round, the top is pointed, along the edges of the notch.
The inflorescence consists of 4 medium-sized white flowers, with long stamens and a pistil.
The fruits are round, slightly flattened, with a white dot at the top. The weight of the fruit is average - 4.5–5 g, the skin is dense. Ripe sweet cherry of a dark burgundy color, the flesh is dark red, fleshy, the taste is sweet, juicy. Taste rating - 4.9 out of 5 points. Contains a lot of sugars and few acids. The stone is separated well, its weight is about 5% of the weight of the fruit.
Ripe fruits of Revna of dark burgundy color
Advantages and disadvantages (table)
|Winter hardy variety||The tree bears fruit only in the fifth year of life.|
|Resistant to fungal diseases||Pollinators are a must|
|Delicious sweet fruit|
|Sunburn resistance of wood|
|Due to late flowering, it is not damaged by spring frosts|
A site for planting cherries Revna should be chosen, remembering that the tree loves abundant sunlight and the south side, and in lowlands with cold air and close groundwater it will feel bad. Suitable soil is loam and sandy loam soil. It is worth planting cherries in early to mid-April, when the temperature has already risen above 0 ° C, but before the buds swell. If a seedling with a closed root system is purchased, it can be planted at any time, but not in extreme heat.
Cherries need open spaces on the south side of the garden
Pollinators are jealously needed, otherwise the yield will fluctuate within 5% of the possible. The best role in pollination will be played by such varieties as Tyutchevka, Ovstuzhenka, Iput, Raditsa. The distance between trees must be at least 3 m.
When buying a seedling in a nursery, you need to make sure that the roots and trunk are intact and well developed.
Video: how to choose a cherry seedling
Step-by-step landing instructions
- In advance (so that the earth settles), dig a hole 60–70 cm deep, 80–90 cm wide.
A seedling hole must be dug in advance
- Mix the top layer of soil with 3 buckets of compost or humus, pour the mixture onto the bottom of the pit, forming a mound. You can add mineral fertilizers (especially if the soil is not very fertile) - 200 g of double superphosphate, 150 g of potassium sulfate.
At the bottom of the pit, you need to form a mound of fertilizers and the top layer of the earth
- Put a support-stake (on the north side of the tree, at a distance of 10 cm).
- Put a tree, spread the roots along the slopes of the mound. Consider that the root collar should rise 5 cm above the soil surface.
- Sprinkle with earth up to half.
The first watering is done when part of the pit is filled with earth.
- Pour 10 liters of water.
- Fill up the hole, compacting the soil a little.
The earth is compacted a little so that there are no voids in the soil
- Pour 1-2 more buckets of water.
- Mulch with humus or peat.
- Tie the seedling to the peg.
Watering and weeding
Jealous does not like stagnant water or drying out of the soil. The usual mode of watering is 2-3 times a month (2 buckets of water in the near-trunk circle). In case of drought, the number of waterings can increase up to 4 times a month. If it rains heavily, it is worth digging drainage holes to collect excess moisture.
Young trees are watered in the near-trunk circle, adults - in grooves up to 30 cm deep, dug along the perimeter of the crown.
Before watering, the trunk circle must be loosened and cleared of weeds. The area of the circle should be 1 meter after planting, and with the growth of the tree it should increase - up to 1.5 m in 3 years, then it is necessary to focus on the area of the crown.
Cherry grows very quickly, so pruning of branches should be carried out already in the second year of life. This procedure is carried out in the spring, before the buds have blossomed. Young shoots are shortened, depending on the length, by 1/5, 2/3 or even half, dry and damaged branches are completely removed. Use only a sharp garden tool. After pruning, the branches are burned. Places of cuts must be treated with copper sulfate or var.
To increase the yield of a tree, gardeners use the following method: branches that grow upward are forced to move away from the trunk at an angle of 90 °. To do this, the tops of the branches are tied to pegs driven into the ground, or a load is suspended.
The gardening tool must be sharp so that the cuts remain smooth and free from cracks in the bark.
Whitewashing the cherry tree trunk will prevent the development of diseases, sunburn and attacks from pests and rodents. You need to whitewash the trunk in the spring with an ordinary brush with a mixture of 3 kg of lime, 10 liters of water, 0.5 kg of copper sulfate and 200 g of glue base. In late autumn, before cold weather, you should repeat the procedure, then whitewashing will be additional protection from winter frost.
Whitewashing wood will protect against rodents, diseases, cold
Preparing for winter
Sweet cherries will benefit from water-charging irrigation, which is carried out at the end of September and ensures autumn growth of roots, prevents them from freezing in winter and retains heat in the soil. The volume of water for a tree is an average of 50 liters, this number may vary depending on the depth of the groundwater and the dryness / humidity of summer.
After whitewashing, the trunk can be additionally tied with spruce branches, and if a cold winter is predicted, cover it with non-woven material (lutrasil, for example). The young tree needs to be supported (peg) so that it will not be broken by winds and heavy snow.
Top dressing (table)
To ensure good tree development and high yields, cherries should be fertilized at least 3 times per season.
|Fruit is tied||30 g superphosphate + 1 glass of ash per 10 liters of water.|
|1 time in 2 years in the fall||Fertilizing with humus: 20–30 kg of fertilizer in the trunk circle when digging.|
Diseases and pests
Jealousy resists fungal diseases well, but is susceptible to pests and some viral diseases.
Table: disease and pest control measures
|Pest / disease||Damage dealt||Control measures|
|Cherry fly||Damages fruits that darken, rotting cavities form on them.|
|Cherry aphid||Damages young leaves and shoots.|
|Cherry sawfly||It damages the leaves of the tree; in case of mass appearances, it can eat the whole plant. The larvae make spider nests on the leaves.|
|Fruit striped moth||Larvae damage buds and young shoots.|
|Sweet cherry mosaic disease||Symptoms: the appearance of yellow stripes along the veins of the leaf, after a while the leaf curls, turns brown and dies off. Although this disease is not reflected in the fruits, the trees are significantly weakened.||Viral diseases are practically not cured, so the tree will most likely have to be destroyed. This virus is spread by aphids and ticks.|
|Gum therapy||Symptoms: congealed discharge on the trunks (they resemble glass formations).||The wounds are cleaned to healthy wood, treated with a 1% solution of copper sulfate, and covered with garden varnish.|
Another threat to cherries is birds. The crop can suffer greatly. Will save the fabric mesh on the tree. Some gardeners use Christmas tree rain to scare birds away.
Photo gallery: how to recognize diseases and pests of sweet cherry
Video: how to treat gum wounds
Cherry Revna ripens rather late - in late June-early July. It should be borne in mind that the tree begins to bear fruit in the fifth year after planting. Yields peak at 10 years of age. From one tree, you can collect about 30 kg of fruit.
Cherry is stored in a dry container and unwashed. At zero temperature, the period can be up to 2 weeks. The skin is thick, does not crack, the petioles come off dry, so the fruits tolerate transportation well.
The purpose of Revna is universal - suitable for fresh consumption, making jams, preserves, compotes. The fruits are sweet, do not require a lot of sugar.
Jealousy tolerates transportation well
Reviews of gardeners and summer residents about cherries Revna
I like the way she shapes herself, a kind of bush with perfect deflection of branches, maybe we were so lucky, we have two of them, and both grow the same, just beauties.
I have two cherries, Iput and Revna, both bloom gorgeous, just the clouds are white, and the berries, one might say, no, this year there were only four berries on both trees and on one more tree the bark was torn very strongly and every year this gap becomes only longer and wider.
Revna is one of the popular cherry varieties among Russian gardeners. Unpretentious to care for, Revna produces a bountiful harvest of delicious sweet fruits. True, this happens only 5 years after planting the seedling.
The culture was obtained at the All-Russian Research Institute of M.V. Kanshina from the varieties Leningradskaya Black and Compact Venyaminova. In 2001 it was entered in the State Register for the Central Region.
The tree is small, up to 4 m in height. The compactness of the form makes it easier to care for cherries and picking fruits. The crown is dense, slightly raised, spherical. Shoots are straight, brown. The leaves are large, ovoid, green, with a pointed tip and jagged edges. Short petiole of medium thickness with 2 colored glands. Inflorescence of 3 flowers with petals overlapping each other. Fruit ovaries are formed on bouquet branches. The berries are large, up to 7 g, rounded, dark burgundy.
The variety is distinguished by early fruiting.
Ripen in the first half of June. The small bone is easily separated from the pulp. Early flowering. Begins to bear fruit from 4-5 years. The pulp is juicy, sweet, dark red, medium density. The separation from the stalk is dry, the fruits do not crack. The content of dry matter in berries: 17.7%, acids 0.4%, sugars 11.6%, vitamin C 13.4 mg per 100 g. Fruit tasting score 4.7 points. Ovstuzhenka is a winter-hardy variety. After the winter cold, the freezing of the tree is only 0.3 points. The variety is semi-self-fertile, 10% of the flower bouquet is tied without a pollinator.
Diseases and pests
Cherry Iput has good resistance to fungal diseases, but can be attacked by insect pests.
Table: pest and disease control measures
Photo gallery: pests and diseasesCherry fly larvae eat cherry fruits The moth caterpillars eat flowers and ovaries, braiding everything with cobwebs Black cherry aphid forms colonies on the back of the leaf During gum flow, "glass" growths are formed on the trunk Mosaic disease is almost impossible to cure
Cherry varieties Fatezh - growing methods
Not every gardener manages to grow sweet cherries on their plot. There are such severe winters that most of the tree freezes. One of the best winter-hardy varieties is the Fatezh cherry. For a guaranteed yield, the requirements for the soil and the peculiarities of crop care should be taken into account.
Description of the cherry variety
The cherry variety appeared thanks to the work of the Moscow breeders of the Institute of Horticulture and Nursery. The plant was named Fatezh in honor of the city in the Kursk region.
A variety of culture was bred thanks to crossing with Leningradskaya yellow cherries. Since 2001, the variety has been included in the state register of elite species.
Cold latitudes of Russia, in particular, the territory of the Central District, are optimal for the cultivation of Fatezh cherries.
The plant is not tall, reaches a maximum height of 3 m. The shape of the crown is spreading, the leaves on the branches are sparse. Ripens in mid-June. The cherry color is yellow, with red-pink sides.
The pulp is dense, it separates well from the stone. The petioles are medium in size, difficult to separate from the fruit. Fruits are medium-sized, on average 4-5 g. The taste of the Fatezh variety is sweet, slightly sour. The juice is colorless.
The main advantage is increased winter hardiness. The tree can withstand up to 30-33 degrees below zero. Convenient, neat crown simplifies plant care. A feature of the variety is the downward-drooping branches, therefore, with abundant harvests, they must be propped up. Resists fungal infections well.
The variety is sterile, crops are required to transfer pollen on the flowers of the plant. A pollinator such as Iput, Cheremashnaya, Bryanskaya Pink will do well. It is not recommended to use cherries for pollination; it weakly contributes to the appearance of an ovary on a tree of this variety.
Fatezh seedling care
For cherries of the Fatezh variety, a soil with a high content of peat and heavy clay is not suitable. Landing is carried out on a small hill, on the southern side of the site. Groundwater should pass no higher than 2 m. The place should not be heavily blown through by drafts.
Loamy and medium sandy soils, well loosened and enriched with oxygen, are optimal. The soil should have neutral acidity (6-7 Ph). Good drainage is recommended if groundwater is too close.
Strong seedlings of the Fatezh variety, which have pinkish-yellow roots, are suitable for cultivation. The bark of the tree should not have external damage and detachment. It is preferable to choose a seedling in a tube in nurseries or online stores specializing in elite varieties.
Landing is carried out in a small depression, which must be prepared in advance. This is to keep the nutrients through the winter. The pit should be approximately 0.5-1 m wide and 0.7 m deep. If several plants are planted, then the distance between the grooves should be at least 3-4 m.
If the tree has a thin, unstable trunk, then you should equip a support in the hole before planting the plant. This way the cherries will not deform and will grow correctly.
For feeding into the pit, you need to add 2 buckets of rotted manure and 1 bucket of compost. If the soil is not sandy, river sand can be added. Additionally, 2-3 handfuls of wood ash are added.
Before planting, the roots should be dipped in mud or clay mash. This will prevent the plant from getting burned by nitrogenous fertilizers. Place the roots in the hole carefully, while straightening the tree system. Fill up with soil, avoiding an understatement of the root neck.
After work, the seedling must be watered with 2-3 buckets of water, after which the trunk circumference can be mulched. Compost, sawdust or pine needles work well. Immediately after planting, it is recommended to cut the branches, leaving a distance of 60-70 cm from the ground.
Sanitary pruning and pest prevention
Timely and attentive attitude to the tree will ensure abundant fruiting. A healthy plant is not susceptible to infections and winters safely in severe frosts.
In early spring, before the plant lets out juices, it is required to remove all dead branches from the tree. It is necessary to cut off all unnecessary and immediately burn or remove from the site. Sanitary measures are carried out in mid-April - early May, before the swelling of the kidneys. All sections must be treated with garden varnish.
The Fatezh variety is characterized by the powerful formation of young shoots, so they need to be removed or pinched in a timely manner. Young shoots, without proper care, take the juices from the tree, but they will not bear fruit. You need to trim it at a distance of 50-60 cm from the beginning of growth.
When the plant reaches 2 m, it is necessary to cut the central shoot on a horizontal branch. A distinctive feature of the Fatezh cherry variety is that the branches go down. So that they do not break off under the weight of the fruit, it is necessary to install props under the fruiting branches. In order for the harvest to be plentiful, it is not recommended to shorten the drooping branches.
Overfeeding cherries is not worth it, as this promotes the reproduction of aphids. Fertilize as needed if the soil is not high in nutrients.
Excess moisture can lead to the development of fungus and a decrease in the taste of sweet cherry fruits. Watery fruits crack quickly and lie poorly, and quickly rot. If there is no rain, young trees should be watered 1-2 times a month. A mature tree in dry summers should be watered during fruit set, after harvest and before winter.
Preparing Fatezh cherries for the winter season
The presented variety is distinguished by its great winter hardiness. To increase fruiting, it is required to carry out measures to insulate a young tree, so it will be easier for it to survive severe frosts. The number of buds and fruiting branches will remain, you will not have to do a strong crown trimming after wintering.
It should be borne in mind that in severe frosts, the bark cracks, which is a favorable environment for the development of infections. To carry out insulation work, it is required to take into account the possible articulation of the bark of a tree.
Therefore, air must circulate through the protection. Do not sprinkle manure or soil on the root collar. Dampness and increased moisture are unacceptable for the culture.
This is a favorable microclimate for the reproduction of fungal spores.
Basic principles for sheltering Fatezh cherries:
- Work should be carried out when it gets colder to a temperature of 0 to 2 degrees. This is approximately the end of October - mid-November. If it rains and becomes warmer, you need to immediately remove the shelter.
- You can equip the frame with a special covering material or canvas fabric stretched over it. For fencing, wooden slats or metal structures are used. It is necessary to firmly fix the frame with bricks at the base, fix the top with a rope.
- In case of strong gusts, it is necessary to control the condition of the shelter.
- After the snow has melted, the shelter must be removed in early spring.
The Fatezh varieties are characterized by increased resistance to fungal spores and bacterial infections. We must not forget about timely measures to prevent diseases from cherries or other varieties of cherries.
In addition to coccomycosis and moniliosis, aphids and leaf-eating caterpillars are often found. The cherry fly is often annoying.
To prevent attacks of pests, in the spring, before flowering, it is required to treat the plant with the “Decis” preparation. In the fall, it is imperative to collect all fallen fruits and burn the leaves. Overfeeding trees with high nitrogen fertilizers is not recommended.
A sign of clotting disease is the appearance of small holes on the leaves. In the case of coccomycosis, the leaves turn yellow and fall off in the middle of the season. Rotten fruits and dried leaves indicate moniliosis. To combat diseases, it is required to treat the plants with the "Horus" agent.
Reviews of gardeners about the variety Fatezh
The cultivation of the Fatezh variety does not require special conditions for the content. A positive property is the early maturity of the plant. Fruiting of a seedling occurs 4 years after planting.
The average yield per tree is 20-30 kg. It is recommended to carry out activities to cover the tree so that as many flower buds are preserved as possible.
The dense flesh allows the fruit to keep well in a cool place for up to 7 days. Suitable for preserving compotes.
Watering and fertilizing
Cherry is popular, perhaps even more than cherry. Thanks to the sweetness of the berries, children love her, although adults also like her. The article will describe a variety bred in Russia in 1993. Cherry Revna got its name in honor of the river flowing near the breeding institute, where it was bred. The article is devoted to its advantages and disadvantages, the method of planting and care.
Description of the Revna variety
The jealous grows up to 4 meters, has a pyramidal, medium-dense crown. Pagons with a large deflection angle, grow very quickly. The leaves are light green in color, large and wide, the petiole is short. It blooms annually and strongly, with about 4 buds in a tassel.
Cherry blossoms from the second half of May
Most of the fruits ripen on bouquet branches. The berries are almost round, each weighing up to 5 grams of almost black, dark cherry color. The taste is sweet, the pulp is juicy and tender.
Cherry blossoms from the second half of May and only after 2.5 months you can get fruits. But when grown in a warm region, the harvest time is reduced by about 1 month. Productivity from a tree is 30 kg. It is grown mainly in temperate climates, although it is also suitable for hot ones.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of the variety?
Cherry Revna has many positive qualities, which is why it has great success not only in Russia, where it was bred, but also abroad.
There are practically no deformed berries.
- Frost resistance. The variety was bred specifically for regions with cold winters, so the tree can grow in difficult conditions of the Moscow region and the South Urals. In the distant, northern regions, it is better to plant it only with high-quality insulation for the winter.
- Due to late flowering, it is not damaged by spring frosts. The kidneys can tolerate significant cold snaps.
- There are practically no deformed berries. They all grow to about the same size and shape.
- The taste of the variety is excellent. Sweet cherries of the Revna variety are used mainly fresh, but they are also suitable for heat treatment.
- Transportability is good, can be transported over long distances without significant damage due to the firmness of the skin and pulp.
- High productivity allows, first of all, to gain vitamin over the summer and earn extra money, if desired.
- The tree is resistant to sunburn, so it is grown even in hot climates.
Now it's worth moving on to the disadvantages, Revna doesn't have many of them.
- The tree develops very slowly. Only 5 years after planting does it begin to bear fruit!
- The crop is harvested closer to August or even in the middle of August, depending on the place of cultivation. Late yields are fraught with difficulties. So, over the summer, before the harvesting period, it can tolerate several attacks of diseases and pests, which can affect the berries.
- For pollination, the plant needs another cherry on the site, otherwise there will be very few fruits (5% of the yield).
How to plant cherries in open ground?
Cherry Revna grows best on the southern side of the site, where there is an abundance of light and warmth in summer. Soil type - loam or sandy loam. Its future pollinator should grow close to the culture.
The best varieties for this are: "Raditsa", "Ovstuzhenka", "Iput", "Tyutchevka".
The place should be open, not swampy, at least three meters of free space on each side is left to the nearest trees.
Planting time is mid-spring, when the temperature begins to stably hold above 0 degrees. A hole is dug under the tree (approximately 50x50x50, if the seedling is small).
The top of the soil is deposited and mixed with 3 buckets of compost or rotted manure. This is a fertile land in which the culture will plant. This mixture must be poured into the bottom of the pit with a slide.
A tree is installed on the resulting mound so that the neck is 5 cm above the ground.
A peg is driven in from the side of the cherry, to which the seedling is tied for the first time. It will allow the tree to resist even in strong winds and will ensure the smooth development of the trunk. Then the pit is filled up to half, watered abundantly and only then, filled to the top with earth. From above, you can slightly trample it down so that it thickens.
How to care for Revna cherries?
The basics of care are about the same as in the case of other cherries, but with their own nuances.
Watering, feeding and warming for the winter cherries Revna
- Cherry of the Revna variety loves water, therefore it is often watered - 2-3 times a month. During a drought, it is possible 4 times. Water is poured into the barrel circle or into the dug grooves around it.
- Top dressing is applied 3 times a year. The first time during flowering (8 g of urea per 10 liters of water), the second time, when ovaries appear (30 g of superphosphate, a glass of ash per 10 liters of water). The third feeding is done in September. Here you can use 40 g of potash mixtures per square meter, 30 grams of ash or 80 g of superphosphate to choose from. Once every 2 years, 25 kg of manure is introduced into the trunk circle during digging in the fall.
- When the first signs of disease appear, the tree is treated with any available means: folk, biological products or chemistry. The sooner the problem is solved, the less likely it is that it will affect the berries.
- Pruning is carried out in the spring from 2 years after planting. The tree grows quickly, although it begins to bear fruit late, so you need to form its crown in advance so that it does not grow much.
- For the winter, the Revna cherry is whitened at the base of the trunk, and peat is poured into the near-trunk circle in a thick layer. This mulch will protect the roots from frost. All diseased branches must be removed.
Planting procedure and preparation for it
In order for the cherry to please with good harvests, it is necessary to take into account some of the peculiarities of planting a tree.
Sweet cherry is very demanding on soil conditions and the microclimate of the site. She is photophilous and does not tolerate excessive dampness. Absolutely not suitable for planting:
- northern slopes
- lowlands and basins, in which cold air stagnates in winter and spring
- undeveloped areas open to all winds
- heavy peat and clay soils
- places where groundwater approaches the surface closer than 2 m.
- areas with a slight slope to the south or southwest
- gardens sheltered from cold winds in the city or at the southern edge of the forest
- chernozems, sandy loam and loamy soils of neutral reaction within 6–7, with good drainage.
Landing at the southern walls of the buildings provides good protection from the north wind. But the premature melting of snow in such areas provokes too early awakening of the kidneys, which are damaged by recurrent frosts.
Cherry Revna gives the maximum possible yield only in favorable conditions
The best time to buy and plant cherries is April, from the melting of the snow to the awakening of the buds. Seedlings with a closed root system (bought in a pot or tub) can be planted a little later, in early May. The correct tree should have live buds (green under the skin), healthy bark without visible damage, and light wood when cut. Buy cherry seedlings only in proven nurseries in your region or further north.
Landing in the ground
Dig the planting holes (about 70x70x70 cm in size) in advance in the fall, keeping a distance of 3-4 m between them.
Step-by-step instructions for planting a tree:
- Fix a stake for a tree garter in the pit, slightly stepping back from its center.
- Mix the soil from the pit with 3 buckets of completely rotted manure or compost and a liter can of wood ash. On loamy soils, add a bucket of coarse river sand.
- Pour the prepared soil mixture with a mound on the bottom of the hole.
- Place the seedling on it, carefully spreading the roots. After planting, the root collar should be located just above the ground.
- Carefully fill the hole with the rest of the earth mixture, periodically tamping the soil to avoid the formation of voids.
- Make a watering hole around the seedling. Carefully pour 2-3 buckets of water into it without eroding the soil.
- When all the water has been absorbed, mulch with straw or humus.
- Tie a tree to a stake.
Water the planted tree carefully, without eroding the soil at the roots.