Types of grafting

Types of grafting

Types of grafting

Grafting is a cultivation practice intended to obtain a new plant from the crossing of two similar or related plants. In this sense, this technique can also be defined as a method of plant propagation. It is preferred to graft the plants when from the propagation by seed or by cuttings, qualitatively and quantitatively appreciable new species are not obtained. Grafting is essentially practiced for fruit plants. This technique allows, in fact, to obtain new trees with tastier fruits, aesthetically pleasing and more resistant to adversity. The graft, therefore, has not only aesthetic or reproductive purposes, but also qualitative ones. To get the most out of this cultivation practice, different types of grafting are performed. The best known are the bud and scion graft, inside which there are the eye graft, a piece, a flask, a piece, a Majorcan, a simple or double split and a crown. Within the bud grafts there are also those with dormant and vegetating buds. The latter two types of grafts refer not to the technique but to the time of grafting and removal of the buds.

Bud grafts

The bud grafts are practiced using only the buds present in the branches of the plant. These are tiny vegetative parts from which the shoot and therefore new branches and leaves will originate. Bud grafting techniques graft these structures onto the most vigorous branches of the mother plant, also called rootstock. Generally, the grafting of the bud into the rootstock takes place in the center of the branch or at the foot. This technique is practiced for fruit plants, especially for vines, and guarantees a good chance of rooting. As already mentioned in the previous paragraph, bud grafts include different techniques, including eye or shield grafting, flasking, Majorcan grafting, etc. In the eye graft, a T-shaped cut is made in the branch of the rootstock. In this branch will be inserted a bud, called "wood", that is mature and not gnarled. The grafted parts are held in place by tying them with raffia. In bud grafts there is also another technique called "salgues grafting", it is always a variant of the eye or shield graft. In this technique, the rootstock cut has an oval shape where a bud is inserted with a part of the bark of the same shape attached. The two parts bind with two pieces of raffia at the top and bottom of the cut. Other variants of the eye graft are the flask, patch, Majorcan, shield and splinter graft. The name of the graft depends on the shape of the rootstock cut and that of the bud. The two parts must, in fact, coincide perfectly. In the whistle graft, the branch of the rootstock is cut, leaving a cylindrical space that is similar to the shape of the whistle; in the piece graft, the cut and the surface of the gem have a square shape, in the Majorcan graft, the gem and cut have a rounded shape at the top, and linear at the base; the shield and splinter ones have cuts and gems respectively in the shape of a shield and a splinter.

  • Grafting

    Grafting means inserting a bud or branch of the same or similar variety on a wild plant, which gives flowers or fruitless fruits, which, feeding on the sap of the wild, develops branches and leaves ...

Grafts with scion

Also in the field of graft grafts there are different cultivation techniques for connecting two plants. These grafts differ from bud grafts because the graft (the part to be grafted) is composed of a branch containing two or three buds. Within these grafts we distinguish the diametrically split, the simple or double English split, the side split and the crown. The diametrically split grafting consists in obtaining a round surface from the most vigorous branch of the rootstock and in making a cut along its entire diameter where a branch with buds (scion) will be grafted. Only one or two scions can be inserted into the cleft. In the first case, the scion will be placed in the center, in the second, on the sides of the split. In simple English split grafting, the diameter of the scion and the surface of the rootstock must coincide perfectly. In the double English split, another incision is made on the scion and rootstock in order to better fit the two parts. In the lateral split grafting, the cut to graft the scion is made on one side of the rootstock. In the crown graft, cuts are made at the edges of the rootstock surface. In these spaces will be inserted at least three slips with two buds, which will form a kind of crown that surrounds the circular surface of the mother plant. Split grafting is practiced for fruit trees.

Types of grafting: Dormant and vegetative bud grafts

As mentioned in a previous paragraph, bud grafts can be practiced with vegetating or dormant bud. In the first case, the bud will be taken during its resting phase of the plant, ie between July and September. In the warmer months it can also be taken in June. This gem will take root in the following spring. The sampling must coincide with the grafting phase. In the vegetative bud graft, the bud is taken in the period of full vegetative activity, that is, in spring. This structure will then be placed in a bag and stored in the refrigerator at a temperature not exceeding four degrees. The grafting will take place at a later time, ie between summer and autumn.

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