Roof eaves device
The main thing in life is a reliable roof over your head. This is confirmed by professional masters. They agree that only a reliable and sturdy roof can provide a comfortable living in the house. And often the reliability and durability depends on minor elements, for example, a cornice. This part of the roof has a small size and a percentage of the surface area of the ramp. But it performs such important functions that it directly affects the life of the roof and the strength of the structure.
What is a roof cornice
Roof cornice is the bottom of the ramp, which extends beyond the walls. Installation is carried out during the installation of the rafter system and is formed by increasing the length of the rafter legs or installing fillies. The cornice has an upper covering, which is formed by the roofing material, and the lower one - lining with wood, siding or other material.
The roof cornice is equipped to protect the walls and foundation of the house from moisture
The main functions of the cornice are:
- Protection of the walls of the house from moisture. It is the eaves overhang of the roof that is able to prevent the ingress of atmospheric moisture and dirt onto the outer wall, which will allow it to maintain its attractive appearance and integrity for a long time.
- Preventing melt and rainwater from dripping onto the foundation. The device of the eaves overhang is such that streams of water and blocks of snow that slide off the slopes are carried farther from the foundation of the house. This allows you to prevent soil erosion near the house and the destruction of the foundation blind area.
- Giving the roof a completeness and a neat look. The eaves overhang is able to give the roof structure a more proportional look, harmoniously complete the architectural design of the house and help to refine the exterior.
Installation of eaves overhangs is a mandatory stage of roofing work. In this case, the type, shape and type of waterproofing coating in this case do not matter. Even a flat roof should have a slight overhang that protrudes beyond the outer walls to protect them from moisture.
Video: how the eaves overhang should look like
Types of roof overhangs
When arranging a pitched roof, two types of overhangs are formed:
- Gable. It is a part of the roof slope protruding beyond the outer wall of the house from the side of the pediment. It is characterized by a short length. It is formed due to the lathing and the frontal strip, which gives shape to the frontal overhang.
The gable overhang is small
- Cornice. It is the lower part of the slope, which starts from the intersection of the roof plane with the upper part of the outer wall. Serves to prevent splashing water on the wall decoration.
The eaves can be installed even on a flat roof
In fact, the cornice is the lengthening of the rafter legs. Since the overhang is located at the bottom of the slope, it is formed taking into account the minimum snow load. However, when designing, it is worth considering the possibility of exerting significant pressure due to the distribution of loads, which is possible due to the installation of a gutter and snow holders.
The method of installing the overhang directly depends on the roof structure, on the length of the slope. There are several ways to form a roof overhang:
- Elongation of the rafter legs. This method is considered to be the simplest. It consists in the use of rafter legs, the length of which is greater than the size of the ramp. The longer the rafter bars are, the larger the overhang will be. This method has a disadvantage. In particular, the mass of the frame will increase, and hence the load on the foundation. Therefore, this fact must be taken into account even during the design of the house.
The cornice can be formed by lengthening the rafter leg or arranging the filly
- Extension of rafters with filly. Fillets are lightweight edged board elements, the thickness of which is much less than the thickness of the rafters. This design allows you to make a large cornice, and there will be no significant increase in the mass of the frame.
Often, professional craftsmen use filly to form an overhang in the event that the length of the slope significantly exceeds the standard dimensions of lumber. Usually, boards with a length of 6 m are used for the roof frame. If the roof slope has the same length, then the cornice is formed with the help of fillies.
It is very important to choose the right size of the overhang, because if it is too small, it will not be able to fully perform its functions, that is, melt or rainwater will fall on the decoration of the outer walls, the foundation, which will ultimately lead to the destruction of the house. When calculating this parameter, it is necessary to take into account:
- Climate. The size of the cornice is influenced by the amount of precipitation that falls in winter and summer. If the amount of precipitation is high, then a roof with a wide eaves should be used. For example, in settlements near the Alpine mountains, houses have cornice overhangs at least 1 m wide.
- Slope of the slopes. The greater the angle of inclination of the roof, the smaller the cornice can be. This is due to the peculiarities of the trajectory of falling snow and water. But if the roof slopes are very steep, then the water movement can be quite intense. Therefore, the cornice can be made wide.
- House proportions. If a building has a sloping roof and a wide cornice, it will appear lower. A narrow overhang with a high roof will help to stretch the silhouette.
The minimum permissible width of the cornice is 45-50 cm. But such an element can be equipped only in regions with low snow load. If necessary, the size of the cornice can be increased up to 1 m.
Eaves finishing methods
Since the cornice also performs a decorative function, it must be properly sheathed. In this case, it is important not only to choose high-quality material, but also to decide on the method of finishing the cornice. The latter depends on the slope of the slopes and their length.
There are two methods for filing eaves:
- Diagonal. Most often it is used when filing cornices with soffits. It consists in arranging the material parallel to the slope. Suitable for steeply sloped roofs with short slope lengths. It is rather difficult to make such a filing with your own hands, so you definitely need expert advice.
Diagonal stitching is done on steep roofs
- Straight. This method consists in arranging a box that is placed at right angles to the outer wall of the house. This kind of hemming will take little time, but it can be costly in terms of the amount of hemming material used.
A lot of waste can be left with straight stitching of the eaves.
The cladding can be attached either directly to the rafter legs (if the angle of inclination of the roof is small), or to a specially made box. To equip it you need:
- Fasten a 4 cm thick edged board between the wall of the house and the edge of the rafters. In this case, one of its edges can be positioned directly to the rafter leg, and the second to the board adjacent to the wall of the house (it is screwed to the rafters from above).
Sewing material can be attached directly to the rafters or to a specially equipped box
- The second option is also possible, when not a vertical board, but a bar is attached to the wall of the house. In this case, the fastening is performed on the dowels.
Arrangement of the eaves box greatly facilitates the filing of the overhang
Cornice device made of different materials
The installation of the overhang is the final stage in the assembly of the rafter frame. As the crate is ready, the rafter legs are trimmed to the level, and then fixes the frontal bar to protect the lower surface of the cornice from moisture, birds and other troubles, and the cornice is sutured. You can use different materials for this.
The material for the filing must be selected in such a way that it is possible to provide ventilation of the cornice, because the service life of the rafter frame depends on this. For convenience, you can use special perforated material, for example, soffits. You can also install special ventilation grills or lay the material with a gap.
From the board
Hemming can be done using regular edging or other similar sawn timber. This method has undoubted advantages, in particular, wood is an environmentally friendly material available to everyone. But it is worth remembering that the tree needs protection from moisture, otherwise the filing of the cornice with boards will not serve you for long. For protection, it is necessary to regularly renew the paint and varnish layer, which also protect the tree from rot.
Wooden curtain rod requires protection from moisture
To install wood sheathing you need:
- Cut the board into pieces of the desired length. Saturate with antiseptic, moisture-resistant and fire-resistant compounds.
- Adjust the width of the board to the width of the overhang.
Planks can be placed on the cornice parallel to the wall and across
- Fix the boards with self-tapping screws or galvanized nails in 10 mm increments. Make sure there is a ventilation gap.
- If desired, over long planks parallel to the wall, additional sheathing with short planks can be made. In this case, they will need to be placed across the long ones.
Wooden boards can be placed along the wall and perpendicular to it
If the roof has a significant angle of inclination, then the filing is performed in a different way:
- First, the box is mounted. One board is screwed to the wall vertically, the second along the lower edges of the rafters parallel to the ground.
Eaves filing boards must be fastened with a gap
- Now the edged board is attached, while leaving a ventilation gap of 2 cm between the cladding and the wall of the house.
The siding of the cornice can be considered the most practical solution. This is due to the fact that you can mount this material with your own hands. Siding is a plate made of metal or plastic with a polymer coating. That is why it perfectly resists any weather conditions, equally heavy rain, hail and sun rays, while maintaining an attractive appearance throughout the entire service life. The disadvantage of this material is poor ventilation. It is easy to solve this problem - just install special ventilation grilles.
Siding does not allow air to pass through well, therefore, when filing the eaves, you need to install ventilation grills
To install siding you need:
- Cut the planks into pieces of the size corresponding to the width of the overhang.
- Fasten the guide profiles along the eaves and parallel to the wall.
Siding must be laid on a special profile
- Between them, place the siding strips, which are interconnected with a thorn-groove system.
The thorn-groove system will help to connect the siding strips to each other.
- Install ventilation grilles every 1.5 m. If this is not done, then condensation will form in the cavity of the cornice, which will negatively affect the wooden parts of the cornice.
Soffits are panels specially designed for filing eaves and gable overhangs. They are distinguished from siding by the presence of perforation. And this is their main advantage. Air easily penetrates through these holes, but water cannot pass through them. There are also differences in width. Soffit panels are much wider than siding, so the filing process will take much less time.
Soffits are a special material for covering cornices.
Installation is carried out as follows:
- The two J-planks are fastened along the eaves and wall with self-tapping screws.
For the installation of spotlights, special strips are used.
- Soffit sheets are installed between them, while the length of each strip of the hemming material should be less than the distance between the strips by 6 mm. This is necessary in order for the soffits to compensate for deformation under the influence of temperature. If the width of the roof overhang exceeds 90 cm, then this parameter can be increased to 12 mm.
- The frontal board is closed with a special bar.
There are several options for closing the outer seam of the hem.
Made of profiled sheet and galvanized steel
In fact, these materials are identical, the only differences are in the presence of a polymer coating and stiffening ribs. They are characterized by resistance to temperature extremes and wind pressure.
It is necessary to install profiled sheet or galvanized steel on rafters that protrude beyond vertical walls, if the angle of inclination is small. Otherwise, it may be necessary to equip the box or install the bars along the wall and rafter legs, respectively.
You can fix the profiled sheet with one edge on the rafter legs, and with the other - on a bar near the wall of the house
When using a profiled sheet for cladding, you need:
- Cut the sheets of material into pieces according to the size of the cornice.
- Place them perpendicular to the wall and screw. Self-tapping screws can be used for fixing.
You can fix the profiled sheet with self-tapping screws
- The junction of the profiled sheet and the wall must be closed with an inner corner (attached to the hemming material) and a frontal strip (attached to the frontal board).
- Fix the outer corner at the outer joints of the profiled sheet.
The external joints of the profiled sheet must be closed with an external plank
To ensure ventilation, the corrugated sheet must be cut into pieces 2 cm smaller than the width of the overhang.
Installation of the eaves plank
The cornice strip must be attached to the abutment of the roof. You need to do the work in the following sequence:
- Mount the frontal board, while fixing it to the ends of the rafter system with galvanized nails. An alternative option is to mount it in special grooves on the rafter system.
Installation of the eaves begins with fastening the frontal board
- Before fixing the eaves, the gutter brackets must be installed. They can be placed both on the eaves board and on the rafter legs.
Before attaching the curtain rail, you need to fix the gutter brackets
- Now you can start attaching the eaves, which must be installed before the installation of the roofing material is carried out. It is necessary to position the curtain rail over the brackets for the drainage system. For fixing, you can use self-tapping screws that are screwed into the cornice or frontal board. The step between the fasteners can be 30–35 cm.
The eaves strip serves to protect the under-roof space from moisture penetration
Video: installation of the eaves
The cornice, although it is an insignificant part of the roof, performs very important functions. They consist in protecting the walls and foundations of the house from destruction. Therefore, it is necessary to correctly calculate its size and the selection of materials for the arrangement.
Roof overhangs - classification and installation stages, design differences, photo
In our review, we will talk in detail about an important structural element of any house, which is called the eaves overhang of the roof. Provides detailed information about the types of cornices and the main options for their device. Since the overhang of the roof protrudes beyond the roof and is subject to significant snow and wind loads, it is important to know the building codes and rules for the device of this element. In the article, you can find out how to make the minimum allowable indentation from the wall, about the recommended norms for installing overhangs for the roof from the most commonly used roofing materials. It is described in detail about an important point - the organization of ventilation of the under-roof space formed after the filing of the cornices.
A closed roof overhang is not only beautiful, but also warm in the attic or attic Source dach-stroy.com.ua
What are spotlights, their types and applications
Soffits are ready-made decorative panels specially adapted for hemming from below on protruding roof overhangs. In fact, spotlights are ceiling siding. Translated from Italian, the word soffit means ceiling.
Soffits under the roof - location diagram
The soffit for roofing has several functions at once: it serves to decorate the lower surface of the protruding roof, protects the internal structure from rain and snow, provides constant humidity and micro-circulation of air between the frame elements.
In addition, they prevent birds and small animals from "settling" in the attic space. As a rule, spotlights are made of plastic, much less often of metal. Instead of spotlights, the overhangs of the roof can be hemmed with any sheet material suitable for outdoor use. However, ready-made soffits for the roof are still preferable, since their design, coating and appearance make it very easy and quick to get an excellent result.
Depending on the design, finished soffits can have stiffening ribs, protrusions for ventilation, or even special perforations to prevent sweating of the sewn wooden elements. A wide range of shades and patterns allows you to choose those panels that best fit into the overall exterior of the building.
Types of soffits for the roof
In addition to the panels themselves, the roof lining will require such transitional elements: corners, linings, end and side joints. All these elements are included in the finished product range. If lining or wooden planks are used as spotlights, then the slots and corners are overlapped with the same material.
Finished spotlights can be made of aluminum, copper, galvanized or painted steel, plastic or wood. Among the metal soffits, aluminum is the most practical. They are lightweight, have a long service life and are inert to all negative atmospheric factors.
Sheathed soffits eaves overhang of the roof photo
Due to the rather high cost and rapid oxidation, copper soffits for roofing have not found widespread use. Copper-bonded steel panels coated with a protective transparent polymer varnish are much more widespread. They create an original yellow hue that mimics the spectrum of the sun at the end of a summer day.
Many manufacturers of metal tiles offer their customers steel spotlights in the same color as the roof itself. Steel soffits provide a consistent style of roofing and subroofing.
The vast majority of plastic soffits are made from PVC. Do-it-yourself filing of roof overhangs using this material is distinguished by its durability, beauty and invariability of appearance throughout the entire service life. Considering that the direct rays of the sun rarely fall on the spotlights, such panels will store the depth of colors and shades for a very long time. Externally, plastic spotlights strongly resemble plastic lining.
Do-it-yourself roof eaves filing
Structurally, they use the same docking elements, but the surface, as a rule, does not have a smooth, but a textured or perforated structure. For the convenience of fastening, the soffits design provides sites for sewing with staples or nails.
Roof overhangs lined with soffits, photo
All of the listed options for soffits are flat panels with a width of several units to several tens of centimeters. The weight of one panel is small, therefore, the filing of the eaves of the roof with your own hands can be done without helpers, independently.
The main advantage of spotlights is their low cost compared to rigid roofing materials. The most expensive spotlights are copper. The cheapest are aluminum and plastic.
How to make a curtain rod covered with fabric
Measure the width of the window and add 6 inches. This is the length of your curtain rod. Add another 6 inches. This is the minimum length of pine plank you need to buy. The board should be 1 inch thick.
Decide if you need a 10 '' or 12 '' board - Lowes or Home Depot often give three cuts for free! You will need two 3 "blocks and one equal to the length of the eaves (window width plus 3").
Purchase a mounting fixture and screws. An L-shaped bracket is sufficient. Half-inch screws are required to attach to the sides of the board since the board is only 1 inch thick. Measure and plan your wall mount.
Drill the holes with a 1/8-inch drill. Attach the 3-inch blocks to the long board at each end using # 8 1.5-inch wood screws. Pre-drill the holes for the mounting brackets.
Cut the BRANCH and FABRIC at least 6 inches wider than the curtain rod and at least 12 inches longer than the length of the curtain rod.
Iron the fabric. This is Scrummy's "Coral Garden" fabric on Spoonflower.com, made from plain combed cotton.
Central cornice in the middle of the batting rectangle. Gently pull one side towards the back of the curtain rod, starting in the middle, and secure with staples. Repeat on the opposite side.
Repeat back and forth from the center of the curtain rod outward. This curtain rod is going to the nursery, so I am using two layers of batting. The first layer will be short, so the ends won't be too bulky.
Double batting for style in the nursery. If you are using two layers, repeat the same with the second layer of batting, stapling, starting in the center and working back and forth.
Fold the batting in the corners. The batting is very gentle and stretches well. Cut off excess batting.
Fold the corners as close as possible to the hospital corner and center the cornice with the batting in the middle of the fabric with the print side down.
Repeat the same steps as for the batting, pull on the edges, but not too hard, otherwise you will have some areas that stretch more than others, making it look uneven.
Trim off excess fabric at the corners. Collect the remaining fabric and staples. Cut out an area for the selected mounting bracket.
Two ribbons have been added to this cornice, and a variety of edging can be added to the bottom. Attach the bracket to the wall first, then slide the curtain rod onto the brackets and secure with screws.
Now you have an easy, simple and beautiful window treatment! See my guide to fabric covered rugs for project alignment.
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Various design solutions
In order to organize the gable overhang, in practice, they use various methods. When filing a roof gable is considered, the options may be different:
Part of the crate
When the roof is being built, you can see how complex the structure is. One of its parts is the crate. The gable overhang is attached to the edge. To do this, the rafters must be slightly longer than usual. The increase in length is usually between 30 and 50 cm.
This method is convenient when the roofing is lightweight. Typically, this situation arises in those cases when apply:
metal roof tiles.
In this case, there is a limitation that is imposed on the width of such an overhang. The removal of the roof beyond the pediment cannot exceed 50 cm. If the overhang is made wider, then as a result its mass will be such that the rafters may bend as a result.
Although a gable overhang is necessary for a home, there is a class of buildings where it is absent.
Gable overhang Source assz.ru
In this case, as a rule, the gable and the eaves are at the same height. This design, although acceptable, is less reliable than in other cases.
The overhang is parallel to the rafters
Although usually the gable overhang is located in a vertical plane, such a design is also used when it is located horizontally, continuing in the plane of the roof.
In this case, the edge of the roof protrudes above the pediment more than usual. In this case, the design provides that such an overhang is attached horizontally to the rafters.
This method is used in cases when it comes to the fact that the roof has a heavy structure. This option allows you to withstand significant weight.
Here we mean the following types of roofs:
using concrete tiles
when ceramic tiles are used
Dimensions according to standards
The dimensions of the overhangs are quite clearly specified in GOST. According to these standards, as well as SNiP, the optimal overhang size is 40-60 cm, but practice shows that sometimes these rules have to be neglected.
This is primarily about buildings belonging to certain architectural styles. For example, for an alpine chalet, it is appropriate to take out the overhang at a distance of one and a half to three meters, and for a modern high-tech house - to completely abandon any overhang.
As for the materials, there are no mandatory requirements, however there are recommended sizes, the convenience of work with which has been confirmed in practice... When choosing a planed board, look for samples with a thickness of at least 20 mm. These are the ones that are best suited for filing, since they do not bend, do not suffer from the wind, do not warp.
The length can be any, but it is best if it is equal to the length of the overhang itself (or its width when transversely fastened). This will avoid many seams, and the hem will be correspondingly stronger.
There are no standard sizes even for spotlights, although they are specially produced for overhangs. However, each of the major manufacturers considers it their duty to offer different sizes than those offered by their competitors, so buyers have the opportunity to choose exactly what they need. So, the width of the panels ranges from 30 to 80 cm, the length - from 3 to 4 m.The most popular are soffits with indicators of 3.6x0.3 m.As for aluminum soffits, their thickness can be from 0.3 to 0.6 mm. The thickness of vinyl is from 1 to 1.2 mm.
Roof cornice device
There are many options for filing roof cornices now, but before that it is worth recalling what it is - cornice. The eaves overhang is the protrusion of the rafters outside the facade of the building. It can be simple and with a takeaway. The first option is simpler to perform, but in strong winds it can buzz quite noisily; such problems do not arise for overhangs with removal. There are 2 types of eaves - front and side.
This type of overhang perfectly protects the facade of the house. It is presented in the form of the lateral edges of the sloping roof slopes; the hip roof does not have them, respectively. The device for the front overhang of a standard gable roof is created by releasing load-bearing crossbars fixed to the rafters. Quite often, you can see the front cornice formed by the sheathing boards, which are placed on the vapor barrier under the roofing material. A cornice board is strengthened on them, later sheathed with soffit or corrugated board.
All sloped roofs have a side overhang. It is performed using rafters protruding beyond the wall of the building. The distance of their protrusion is calculated from the width of the blind area and the height of the house, usually it is about 0.5-0.7 meters, sometimes there are bevels of narrower sizes. In this case, the wall of the building must necessarily be well protected from the wind, because otherwise it will not avoid being very wet under slanting rain. Another option to fix the situation is to install fillies, so you can increase the length of the rafters. This process is extremely laborious, and with the roof already finished, few people will want to reopen it and redo everything. So it is especially important at the initial stage of construction to provide for the required size of the roof overhang. The rafters are connected to each other by boards along the entire length of the cornice. Subsequently, they are covered with facing material.
When performing such work, it is necessary not to forget to provide ventilation of the roof.
High humidity can lead to damage to parts Source krovelmag.kz
Ventilation can be provided in one of the following ways:
One of the easiest ways is to leave a small gap between the cladding made and the wall. It is enough for this purpose. So that the width of the gap is equal to one or one and a half centimeters.
If lining is used and in some other cases instead of some boards there may be built-in ventilation grilles.
When using spotlights, can be used perforated material.
In the case when the overhang is sheathed with boards, ventilation can be provided by making gaps between boards... In such cases, it is usually one centimeter.
In order to determine how much the resulting ventilation is sufficient, the following rule can be used. The total area of the holes must be at least one five hundredth of the entire roof surface, which must be ventilated.
It is also necessary to take into account what kind of roofing material was used to make the roof. If this is a tile, then such a roof still breathes a little by itself. In some other cases, for example, if the coating is bituminous, it is desirable to increase the area of the ventilation holes.
Gable roof overhang Source pinterest.co.uk
Remember that the holes can attract the attention of birds or insects. They must be protected. The installation of grids will help prevent the entry of birds. In the crevices, it is better to use a net that will protect not only from insects, but also from a variety of debris: dust or dry leaves.