The temperature regime in the greenhouse and the formation of peppers
Read part 1. Preparation, germination and planting of pepper seeds
There is no vegetable garden without peppers. Part 6
Temperature regime for fruiting plants
In different publications, this regime for adult plants is interpreted with slight discrepancies, but +18 ... + 25 ° С is considered optimal. If, after planting the plants, the air temperature is +8 ... + 10 ° C, then their growth stops, they will drop flowers; at an air temperature of +12 ... + 13 ° C, they grow slowly, but. Before the beginning of fruiting on a clear sunny day, it is necessary to maintain a temperature of +24 ... + 28 ° С. In cloudy weather, reduce it to +20 ... + 22 ° С, and at night - to +17 ... + 19 ° С.
With the beginning of fruiting on a sunny day, pepper needs a temperature of +24 ... + 30 ° С, in cloudy weather +20 ... + 22 ° С, at night +18 ... + 20 ° С. If these requirements are met, then we, northerners, should not grow peppers at all. However, they learned how to get yields of 10-12 kg / m² on biofuel, and not only in technical ripeness, but also in biological one.
In practice, however peppers showed that they can grow and bear fruit at lower temperatures. Our nights in the swamps are cold. During the whole summer, 2-3 warm nights happen, and usually it is +11 ... + 12 ° С, in the greenhouse on such a night it is two degrees warmer. Saves biofuel, i.e. the roots of the peppers are warm, but it also dies out in May during prolonged cold snaps (rains with snow), the temperature of the soil on critical days drops to + 10 ° С. Then you have to worry, because the groundwater is close under the greenhouse, and from heavy rains they rise even higher, so biofuel dies out. But still, over 15 years of working with peppers, not a single plant has ever died.
Probably, this is due to the hardening of seeds and seedlings. And so that the peppers do not shed flowers and ovaries, I make the load on the plant less. In cloudy, rainy weather, I open the doors in the greenhouse, thereby lowering the temperature to + 18 ° C. Two thermometers near the peppers are in the ground, and the third is at the top of the greenhouse. Only a thermometer will teach you how to manage plants. Some gardeners in cloudy weather do not open greenhouses and greenhouses at all. This is mistake.
After every watering soil loosen near the plants. Loosening should be shallow, because the root system of the pepper is not very deep and not very powerful. In the southern regions, in the open ground, gardeners water the peppers between rows, and loosen the soil with a little hilling. In the northern regions, this is not necessary, because any hilling causes the formation of new roots, thereby slowing down the growth and development of the plant. And every warm day counts for us. Therefore, we only do shallow loosening. After the crowns are closed (if you look at the peppers from above, they seem to touch each other), the loosening is quite shallow - 1-1.5 cm, you just need to knock down the crust a little. It is very useful to add fresh soil 1-2 times a summer if the roots are bare. But this work is very laborious, not everyone can do it.
Practice has shown that you can not add; nothing terrible will happen, they bear fruit well without bedding. Frequent feeding with slurry leaves a dense crust, especially on clay soil, and light loosening does not help much. In such a situation, it is possible to make punctures between the plants with a pitchfork to the full depth of their horns so that the peppers do not suffocate under the crust.
Many years ago, when there were no hybrids yet, the author O.A. Ganichkina proposed to form the varieties as follows: the plant will grow by 20-25 cm, cut off the very top of it. Then the stepsons will wake up and begin to grow. The lower ones should be removed, and the upper 3-5 should be left. The number of stepchildren depends on the food area, i.e. distance between plants. This technique can be used if the plant breaks while transporting seedlings.
It is not necessary to throw it away, the same harvest will be obtained from the awakened stepchildren, only later. I tested this in practice. Now most of the hybrids are highly branching, therefore, to obtain a full harvest in biological ripeness, it is necessary to form peppers. If the gardener does not have time to engage in shaping for a long time, then you can not do this, but just plant peppers less often, i.e. give the distance between the plants more than I do, but be sure to still perform the following operations:
1. Remove sterile lateral shoots. You can see them if you look closely. They have no buds or flowers. Moreover, they try to grow inside the crown, thickening it. In the south, in the open ground, I did not break them out, they seemed to save peppercorns from sunburn. And in our northern kitchen gardens, we catch every ray of sunlight.
2. After the crown closes, remove the leaves along the central shoot to the fork. At one time it is necessary to remove 2-3 leaves from the plant. A few days later - the next 2-3 leaves, etc.
2. Systematically remove stepchildren on the central shoot before the fork, but also not all at once.
By forming the plants, I regulate the yield. I will give a small load - I will get an early harvest in biological ripeness. If you need to get the peppers later, I give a big load on the plant. For example: Indalo F1 - gave a load of two fruits per plant, i.e. when they tied well, she removed the rest of the ovaries. These two peppers weighed 800 g (500 g and 300 g) at biological ripeness. Nearby is the same other plant - it led in three shoots and with a load of 15 fruits, but at that time they were still in technical ripeness and not large, their total weight was 1 kg 400 g.
Consider several options for formation, on which not only the harvest depends, but also the entire planting. The pepper plant first grows as a single shoot. Then it starts branching. At the fork, i.e. in the fork, two or three shoots are obtained.
1. If there are few seedlings, the plant can be formed into three shoots, each of them tied with a separate twine to the trellis or to the stake. Increase the distance between plants.
2. Most often they form in two shoots, the third must be cut off. If the agricultural technology is at a high level and the feeding area is sufficient, then 1 fruit and 1 leaf can be left on the third shoot, and the rest of the third shoot can be removed. But if the spring is overcast and crowded, then it is better to remove the third shoot completely. Sometimes I will leave 1 fruit on the third shoot, but every time I am convinced that it is not necessary to do this. Firstly, I reduce the distance between plants, and secondly, at the same level in the fork, three large fruits are tied, then it becomes cramped for them, as a result, one pepper always turns out to be curved, crooked. Therefore, we leave two shoots - this is the skeleton of the plant, we tie each of them with twine to a trellis or to a stake.
3. If there are a lot of seedlings and you are sorry to give it away, then the plant can be formed into one shoot, the rest can be cut out. The planting density should be increased by 1.5-2 times. This method is used by some gardeners in some European countries. The harvest is not lost, it is just convenient to work. In such cases, it is necessary to recalculate 1m? In order to more accurately know how much water is needed, how much fertilizer. I have not yet tried to form in one shoot, but this season I will try to do it and calculate the yield, i.e. I will compare cultivation in one shoot and in two shoots.
How is the crop formed on the left shoots? In skeletal stems, further branching will begin as they grow. And with each next branching, it is necessary to leave the strongest shoot as a continuation shoot, and pinch the weak one on 1 fruit and 1 leaf. At the fork itself, a large flower will form, and a good fruit will develop from it.
The easiest way is to leave 1 fruit, 1 leaf and a continuation shoot in the fork, and completely cut out a weak shoot with a small flower. This variant of formation (leaving only a large flower, and cutting a small one) is good in a cold, cloudy summer, when feeding is disrupted, so the load on the plant can be less, i.e. the number of fruits will be less, but they will be large and ripen faster. I try to leave a large flower on the shoot of large-fruited peppers, I cut out a trifle.
In low greenhouses, there are no trellises, so a stake (not a small stick and not a peg) is driven between two plants. The shoots are first tied with twine, and then attached to the stake.
Bouquet-type peppers (Dobrynya Nikitich, Winnie the Pooh) do not need to be tied up, they are low and do not branch. But when they tie 7-9 fruits at their top, then you have to tie them up, since they lean heavily on one side, pulling out the roots. I use these varieties as seals near the glass itself. They bear fruit in early July, then I break them out and remove. True, the plants of the Dobrynya Nikitich variety can be left for the second harvest.
I harvest from the top in early July, remove excess leaves from it, and soon large flowers appear throughout the shoot. Before pouring the fruits, I removed the leaves along the shoot, the stem is bare. And flowers appear in the former axils of the leaves. I tried to limit the number of flowers so that there were no extra fruits, but it does not work, the shoot is so tightly covered with flowers. Plants then throw off extra flowers and ovaries themselves.
Many gardeners harvest the fruits in technical ripeness in order to get a larger yield, and then ripen them indoors. Peppers that are light green in technical ripeness, lettuce, yellow, lemon color, i.e. light-colored, good in technical ripeness. These are varieties and hybrids Tenderness, Dobrynya Nikitich, Kapitoshka, Krepysh, Winnie the Pooh, Yubileiny Semko F1, Katyusha, Alyonushka F1, Yaroslav, Dolphin, Ivolga, Alyosha Popovich, Ermak, etc. In varieties and hybrids, the fruits of which are dark green in technical ripeness, the harvest must be removed when they begin to stain a little, light strokes or spots of red or yellow appear on the peppers. Such fruits, when ripening, will completely color in 2-3 days.
L. Klimtseva, experienced gardener
Read all parts of the article:
Part 2. Care of pepper seedlings before picking and picking seedlings
Part 3. Planting pepper seedlings in the ground and frost protection
Part 4. Preparing the soil in a greenhouse for seedlings of peppers
Part 5. Care for peppers and feeding in the greenhouse
Part 6. Temperature conditions in the greenhouse and the formation of peppers
Can cucumbers and peppers be planted in the same greenhouse?
When planning to grow different garden crops in the same greenhouse or greenhouse, you need to think over their compatibility in advance so that you do not later experience disappointment from wasted efforts.
The content of the article
The main garden crops that require growing in greenhouse conditions are tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, eggplants, and green crops. Unfortunately, not all of them tolerate being close to each other without harming each other.
The fact is that for good yields, each species needs to create its own special microclimate, which may be harmful to another plant.
Cucumbers need a warm and humid climate, abundant watering with warm, settled water, spraying air in the greenhouse from a spray bottle.
Cucumbers do not require frequent ventilation; self-pollinated (parthenocarpic) varieties can be used to obtain good yields. Quite the opposite requirements apply to growing tomatoes and peppers.
Tomatoes need a moderate temperature regime, feeding with nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer. Tomatoes do not tolerate high humidity in a greenhouse, they need to be often ventilated.
Based on the above, we can conclude that cucumbers, peppers and tomatoes will be uncomfortable in one greenhouse.
In high humidity, tomato and pepper bushes risk getting late blight and fungal infections, and dry air is harmful for cucumbers - it will lead to dropping of the ovaries and loss of yield. In addition, the phytoncides secreted by tomatoes negatively affect the condition of cucumbers.
The same problems will arise when growing cucumbers, peppers and eggplants in the same greenhouse. The fact is that they belong to the same nightshade family as tomatoes, so the requirements are similar.
You can combine cucumbers, tomatoes and peppers with green crops: green onions, lettuce, radishes, which are planted in the greenhouse in early spring. As they are collected, seedlings of vegetable crops can be planted in the vacant space - these crops get along well with each other.
If it becomes necessary to place several bushes of pepper and cucumbers in one greenhouse, you can try to block the inner space with plastic wrap - provided that it remains possible to fully ventilate the greenhouse.
However, this method is still undesirable, since the plants will continue to influence their neighbors through the soil: different humidity and different fertilization requirements can play a cruel joke with the gardener.
If there is only one greenhouse on the site, you can use a warm compost bed under a film cover for growing cucumbers - under these conditions, the chances of getting a good harvest will significantly increase.
You can make another compromise - plant cucumbers in the greenhouse, and pepper in a warm bed, since these conditions will also be suitable for him. By planting plants in different locations, you can hope to get the expected returns from hard work without risking ruining your plants with improper care.
Can cucumbers and peppers be planted in the same greenhouse?
Growing and caring for peppers in a greenhouse
The main thing in care is compliance with the thermal regime, timely watering, top dressing, loosening the soil and weeding.
Be sure to ventilate the greenhouse, shade in the heat.
Watering the peppers produce every 2-3 days at the root of 1-2 liters of water. Peppers are moisture-loving and do not tolerate even short-term drought.
Maintain the optimal temperature - 20-27 degrees during the day, 15 degrees at night. When the fruiting period begins, the temperature can be lowered.
Hilling bushes when the soil is wet. As the soil dries, loosen the aisles, about once a week. If there is no possibility of loosening, mulch the soil with straw, humus, sawdust.
To form bushes, remove excess shoots, leaving the 2 strongest side shoots, remove excess leaves and shoots below the main branching zone. The plant will concentrate on developing the ovaries, not building up the green mass.
For a greenhouse, choose compact varieties, pepper is a fragile plant, the stems can break under the weight of the fruit. Be sure to tie up elongated plants. Harvesting is carried out in the morning, carefully cutting or breaking off the fruits along with the short stalk.
When growing pepper in a polycarbonate greenhouse plant care does not change.
The subtleties of organizing a favorable atmosphere for joint plant cultivation
Cucumbers love frequent watering and rare airing, but tomatoes with peppers are rather unusual for such an atmosphere. If the air is too humid, then the tomatoes can get sick pretty quickly, and your harvest will simply go down the drain. The most common disease in tomatoes is cladosporia.
How to properly plant peppers, tomatoes and cucumbers in a greenhouse together can be clearly seen in the photo:
If you prefer rare watering and frequent airing, then your cucumbers will seriously lack moisture, as a result of which they can simply dry out and not bring the proper harvest. In addition, rot can appear on the cucumbers, which will be very difficult to get rid of, so it is better not to risk it.
The best conditions for joint cultivation of vegetables will be:
- For peppers, the best of all is an abundance of light, moist soil, the air temperature should not fall below 22 degrees and be above 25 degrees.Constant ventilation and relatively humid air are also required.
- For tomatoes, the best conditions will be a high concentration of light, moderately moist soil, the same temperature regime as that of peppers, sufficiently dry air, as well as regular ventilation.
- Cucumbers need a lot of light, a sufficiently moist soil, the temperature should not be higher than 20 degrees and fall below 18 degrees, sufficient humid air is needed, as well as rare ventilation.
For many gardeners, when asked how to plant peppers, tomatoes and cucumbers together in a greenhouse, certain difficulties arise. The best way out of the situation would be to delimit the territory so that you can ventilate the greenhouse in parts. For this purpose, it will be possible to independently install partitions, which will also help to properly organize the space available in your greenhouse. Also, choose a culture that is more important to you and give it more attention.
What are the features of growing tomatoes, peppers and cucumbers
Before planting tomatoes, peppers and cucumbers together, you need to know the intricacies of growing each variety of vegetables.
Therefore, when planting vegetables, keep in mind that:
- Pepper is a vegetable from South America, so it is imperative for it to be constantly warm and get its dose of sunlight. Its root system is shallow, and the soil must be highly fertile in order to get a successful harvest.
- Tomatoes also originated in South America, so they are characterized by the same thermophilicity as peppers. Sunlight is essential for tomatoes, so those plants that receive more sunlight produce more ripe and large fruits.
- Cucumbers are big fans of high humidity in the air, so they will feel great both in the greenhouse and in the open field with frequent watering. However, unlike tomatoes and peppers, they do not tolerate too frequent ventilation, as this contributes to the formation of rot on the roots and stems of the plant.
It is this factor that often makes it difficult to grow these plants next to each other. If tomatoes and peppers very quickly find a common language, since they come from the same country and have the same requirements for conditions, then with cucumbers you will have a little difficulty.
For this reason, it is better to immediately understand what difficulties you will have to face when planting these plants nearby.
Basic rules for growing
For the successful cultivation of pepper in greenhouse conditions, there are basic rules. It is important to adhere to the following steps:
- Landing time.
- Landing scheme.
- Bush formation.
- Lighting and watering.
- Temperature conditions.
The time of planting seedlings in the greenhouse depends on the type of greenhouse from the varieties of pepper. If the greenhouse is not heated, then it is necessary to plant the plant in May, if it is heated, then at the beginning or mid-February. In spring greenhouses with heating, seedlings are planted in March. The plant should be between 50 and 70 days old.
At what distance to plant peppers in a greenhouse depends on the variety and size of the bush. The planting of bell peppers in the greenhouse is carried out according to a certain scheme. There should be a distance of 35-40 cm between the seedlings, and the width between the rows should be 70 cm.
The bushes are transplanted into the greenhouse along with the soil in which they germinated. If the root is damaged, the plant will take a very long time to recover, so the transplant must be done carefully.
To increase the number of fruits, it is important to form the bush correctly. To do this, it is necessary to remove the crown bud, which occurs on the fork when the bush reaches a height of 20 centimeters. In addition, it is important to pinch off excess shoots. The optimal one is 2-3 shoots, the rest are recommended to be removed.
Do not forget about the lower leaves. They also need to be removed. This is necessary so that they do not take away the nutrients that are necessary for the fruit. You can also pinch the skeletal branches. This will increase the number of fruits on the bush.
Lighting and watering
For good fruiting, it is important that the daylight hours consist of 14 hours. In winter and early spring, there are not enough light hours to grow bell peppers. Therefore, you need to worry and prepare the lamps in advance. This is necessary to artificially extend the day.
It is important to water the pepper bushes regularly so as not to dry out the soil. During the flowering period, watering must be increased. The optimal interval between waterings is considered to be two days. Then the earth will not dry out and there will be no waterlogging. It is better to water the seedlings in the morning.
Peppers love humidity and optimal temperatures. Since pepper loves warmth, the temperature in the greenhouse should be up to 27 degrees during the daytime and at least 15 degrees at night. If the temperature is less than 15 degrees, then the seeds will not grow, and the seedlings will bear fruit. At over 30 degrees, the plant sheds leaves and flowers, and dies.
Top dressing is carried out twice during the growth of the plant. The first time the seedlings are fed after the appearance of up to three leaves in the plant, after fourteen days. To do this, dilute 30 g of superphosphate and 7 g of urea in ten liters of water.
Before planting the pepper in the greenhouse, it is necessary to carry out a second feeding of 20 g of sodium sulfate and 50 g of superphosphate per ten liters of water. Such feeding can be repeated if the plant has become sticky or has lost its bright color. Then the second feed is repeated to supplement the nutrients.
The herbaceous annual plant paprika (Capsicum annuum) is a member of the genus Capsicum of the Solanaceae family. This culture is widely cultivated in agriculture. The homeland of pepper is Central America, such a vegetable appeared on the territory of Europe in the 15th century and, despite the fact that such a culture is demanding to care for and thermophilic, in a short time it gained immense popularity among gardeners. Today there are about 2 thousand varieties of paprika, most of them are related to the subspecies of sweet pepper, and the rest - to the subspecies of bitter pepper. Below we will talk about sweet peppers.