Radish: planting and care in the open field, cleaning, storage, photo
Plant radish (Latin Raphanus) belongs to a small genus of herbaceous annuals and perennials of the Cabbage or Cruciferous family, which grow wild in Europe and in temperate Asian regions. As a vegetable, radish has been cultivated since time immemorial. Today, a species known as the radish (Raphanus sativus) is cultivated, which does not occur in the wild.
How to plant a radish, how to water a radish, how to fertilize a radish, how to process a radish affected by diseases or harmful insects, when to dig up a radish, how to store a radish - all this and much more will be discussed in this article.
Planting and caring for radishes
- Landing: sowing seeds of early varieties in open ground - after April 25, sowing seeds of late varieties - in mid-June.
- The soil: fertile, moist, humus-rich loam of slightly alkaline or neutral reaction. Acidic soils are lime before sowing.
- Watering: regular: early varieties are watered once a week, late varieties are watered less often, only 3-4 times per season. Water consumption - 10-12 liters for each m² of the garden.
- Top dressing: if necessary, early varieties are fed 2 times with nitrogen fertilizers: at the stage of unfolding cotyledon leaves and a week after the first feeding. Late varieties require weekly feeding alternately with nitrogen fertilizers and complete mineral complexes. Stop feeding three weeks before harvest.
- Reproduction: seed.
- Pests: cruciferous fleas, cabbage and garden scoops, cabbage flies, cabbage moths and whiteworms, stem nematodes and wireworms.
- Diseases: black leg, keela, felt disease, powdery mildew, downy mildew, white rot, leucorrhoea.
Read more about growing radish below.
Radish plant - description
The root of the radish is thickened, but sometimes, like the olive variety, it is thin. The color of the root, which forms in the first year of growth, can be white, pink, red, green, purple or black, but the flesh of the root is invariably white. The leaves are lyre-shaped, pinnatipartite, sometimes whole, with a large upper lobe and 2-6 pairs of lateral lobes. The flowers are pink, purple or white, the pod fruits are swollen, wide, glabrous or covered with stiff bristles.
A radish is grown for consumption during a period of vitamin deficiency: it stimulates appetite, improves digestion, and speeds up metabolic processes. Radish is widely used in folk medicine.
Planting radish in open ground
When to plant radish in the ground
Radish is a cold-resistant plant, seedlings germinate at a temperature of 3-5 ºC and are able to withstand a cold snap up to 3-4 ºC. Mature plants will normally withstand frosts down to -5-6 ºC. Radish is sown in the ground in spring and summer - it all depends on the type of plant. Early varieties are sown immediately after April 25, while those grown for winter storage are sown in mid-June.
Soil for radish
The best soil for radish is fertile, moist, humus-rich loam, neutral or slightly alkaline. Acidic soils will have to be limed.
The best neighbors for radishes are radishes and turnips, and good predecessors are legumes (peas, beans, soybeans, lentils, peanuts and beans), as well as cucumber, tomatoes, pumpkin, onions, lettuce, zucchini, squash, dill, eggplant, corn and pepper. It is under the crops preceding the radish that it is desirable to apply organic fertilizers.
Do not plant radishes in areas where horseradish, cabbage, watercress, turnips, carrots, beets, turnips, radishes, and radishes have grown.
The cultivation of radish from seeds is preceded by digging the site in the fall, first the soil is peeled to a shallow depth, and after a short period of time the weeds that have appeared are removed by digging to the depth of a shovel bayonet, while adding compost or humus to a bucket and a half-liter can of wood ash for each m2.
How to plant radish in open ground
Planting the radish in the ground begins with the preparation of the seed: the radish seeds are calibrated by size and weight in a solution of 50 g of salt in 1 liter of water using a sieve with two-millimeter holes. The seeds remaining in the sieve are thoroughly washed with water and soaked for a day in a solution of 0.2 g of potassium permanganate in 1 liter of water.
In the bed, furrows up to 2 cm deep are made at a distance of about 35 cm from one another and 3 seeds are placed in them with an interval of 8 cm between the nests, after which the furrows are sprinkled with earth and compacted. If the soil is not moist enough, water the garden bed after planting. Seedlings may appear within a week.
Planting winter radish varieties
Sowing of winter radish varieties in the ground is carried out according to the same principle and in the same order as the sowing of early varieties, the only difference is that the plot for sowing of late varieties is prepared in spring, and not in autumn, and the distance between seed nests should be greater - about 15 cm.
How to grow a radish
Radish belongs to unpretentious crops, so growing radish in the open field will not exhaust you. You will have to water the garden bed, thin out the plants at the same time as loosening the soil and weeding weeds, and also carry out top dressing. The first time, the thinning of seedlings is carried out after the growth of one or two leaves at the seedlings, leaving a distance of 6-7 cm between them, the second thinning is carried out 3-4 weeks after the first.
The row spacing on the site is loosened 3-4 times per season: the first time to a depth of 4 cm, the second time to 8 cm, and the third and fourth times to a depth of 10-12 cm.
Watering the radish
Moistening of spring sowing radish is carried out regularly once a week, winter varieties are watered less often - 3-4 times per season. Radish needs a lot of moisture: 10-12 liters of water are poured into each m². The main thing in moisturizing the beds with radish is regularity, since abundant watering after a long drought leads to the fact that the radish cracks. Insufficient watering makes the radish root woody and almost inedible. Will help to retain moisture in the soil and reduce the number of watering mulching the site.
During the growing season, if necessary, feeding the early radish is carried out twice: the first time, when the seedlings have cotyledon leaves, and the second after a week. Due to the short ripening period of early varieties, radish fertilization is carried out only with nitrogen fertilizers - lime-ammonium or sodium nitrate at a concentration of 0.2%. Late varieties of radish are fed weekly with a solution of complete mineral fertilizer, dissolving in a bucket of water 60 g of superphosphate, 20 g of urea and 15 g of calcium chloride and consuming one bucket of solution for 20 m of a row.
However, since the plant needs nitrogen in large quantities, then alternate complex fertilizing with exclusively nitrogen. Fertilization is stopped three weeks before harvest. Never use manure as a fertilizer for the radish, as this subsequently leads to branching of the root crops.
Radish pests and diseases
Most often, radish is infected with keel, cabbage mosaic, felt disease, powdery mildew, peronosporosis, white rot, black leg and linen.
Keela - a fungal disease, due to which fusiform or spherical growths are formed on the roots, which turn brown and decay with time. Affected plants stunted and wither.
Cabbage mosaic manifested by a pattern on a leaf plate, contraction of veins and deformation of leaves. Later, a dark green border appears around the main veins of the leaves, the leaves are covered with whitish necrotic spots.
Felt disease or red rot, looks like brown and purple spots on root crops, then dark sclerotia of the fungus is formed in place of these spots. The disease progresses at too high temperature and humidity.
Powdery mildew covers the ground parts of the plant with a grayish-white bloom, eventually acquiring a brown color. The affected leaves are deformed and dry up, the plants are lagging behind in development.
Peronosporosis, or downy mildew, looks like chlorotic specks on the upper side of the leaf blade, which gradually turn yellow and oily, and then turn brown, and a dirty purple bloom appears under them, nor on the underside of the leaf.
In case of illness black leg the lower part of the leaf rosette and the top of the root crop are divided thin, soft, covered with mycelium.
White rot discoloration of the affected tissues, they become watery and covered with mycelium, similar to cotton wool.
On defeat linen the ground parts of the plant seem to be covered with oil paint, then the diseased tissues turn brown and dry. Leaves, on which clusters of fungal spores are formed, bend and become covered with swellings.
The most dangerous insects for radish are cruciferous flea beetles, garden and cabbage scoops, cabbage flies, cabbage whites, cabbage moths, wireworms and stem nematodes.
Cruciferous flea not a flea at all, but a small leaf beetle with hind hopping legs like a grasshopper, capable of destroying young seedlings of cruciferous crops, severely damaging plant leaves.
Caterpillar scoop and cabbage white eat the flesh of the leaves, and the larvae of the cabbage fly gnaw the roots of the radish, which makes them rot.
Larvae of nematodes, feeding on plant sap, cause curvature and growth retardation.
Wireworms feed not only on radish leaves, but also on roots.
Fight against fungal diseases (keel, linen, rot, powdery mildew, black leg and peronosporosis) by treating plants with copper-containing preparations (Bordeaux liquid, copper sulfate, copper chloride). How to process radish with these preparations, you will read in the attached instructions.
It will not be possible to cope with the mosaic, since no medicine has yet been invented for it, but diseased specimens must be immediately removed from the site and burned until the disease spreads to neighboring plants.
As for harmful insects, they are destroyed with insecticides, which can be found in any specialty store or department. However, the best thing that you can do to protect your garden from diseases and pests is to carry out pre-sowing treatment of soil and seeds, to observe agricultural techniques and crop rotation rules.
Cleaning and storage of radish
Early radish varieties are harvested in summer, selectively, when the root crop reaches 3-4 cm in diameter. These varieties are not suitable for storage - they are grown solely for food, so put the early radish in the refrigerator, where it can stay for up to three weeks. At room temperature, early varieties of radish are stored for no more than 10 days.
The harvest of winter radish varieties is carried out in the fall, in the second half of September, before the onset of the first cold weather. After digging up the root vegetable, shake off the earth from it, tear off the small roots, carefully cut the tops at the root vegetable, being careful not to damage it, and let the radish dry out a little, and then keep it in a cool dark place for several days. If you are harvesting late radishes for the winter, place them in vents and sand them like carrots or beets. Each layer of sand should be up to 4 cm thick.
It is best to store the radish in a cellar with a temperature of about 2-3 ºC and an air humidity of about 90%. In such conditions, late varieties of radish, such as Winter round white or Winter round black, can be stored until spring.
Types and varieties of radish
Within the framework of the type of seed radish, the following varieties are distinguished:
- black radish - in terms of taste, this subspecies loses to the rest of the varieties, but it has the most valuable healing properties;
- Japanese radish, or daikon - a large white radish, sometimes reaching 60 cm in length with a diameter of 10-15 cm. It is unpretentious, tasty and healthy: one hundred grams of cornfruit contains 40% of the daily value of vitamin C. This type of radish is also rich in fiber, beta-carotene, folic acid, potassium, iron, selenium and iodine. The best varieties: Sasha, Dragon, Dubinushka, Japanese white long;
- oil radish - cold-resistant, shade-tolerant, moisture-loving and fruitful annual plant. The flowers of the oilseed radish are white-purple, the best time for planting is June or July;
- green Uzbek radish, useful almost as well as black, but its taste is much softer and more pleasant. Green radish is rich in carotene, vitamins, phytoncides, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, sulfur, calcium and essential oils;
- Chinese radish, or margelan, or forehead - juicy and dense root crops of a rounded or elongated shape, which are stored worse than European radish varieties. This is a salad variety, the varieties of which differ in color: they can be pink, red, lilac-violet, light or dark green, but the tops of the heads are the same rich green in all varieties. The pulp of this radish is neither pungent nor bitter. The most popular varieties: Ladushka, Hostess, Severyanka, Zarevo.
But since in our climatic conditions the best growing radish of European varieties, we bring to your attention a description of the most popular of them. So, the best varieties of radish for open ground:
- Winter round white - mid-season fruitful variety with white roots, round-flat or round-oval, weighing up to 400 g with white, juicy, firm pulp of medium-sharp taste;
- Winter round black - one of the most common fruitful and maturing varieties, oval or flat-round root crops of which have high taste and medicinal properties. The pulp of this type of radish is white, juicy, of mild taste;
- Sudarushka - a variety that ripens in 37 days, with white oval roots only half submerged in the soil, which greatly facilitates harvesting. The pulp of root vegetables of excellent taste;
- Gaivoronskaya - mid-late fruitful variety of sharp taste and excellent keeping quality with white firm pulp of cylindrical root crops with a green head;
- Mayskaya - early ripening variety with oval-conical smooth white roots with juicy, white flesh of a pleasant semi-sharp taste;
- Green goddess - an early-ripening variety of a pleasant, slightly spicy taste of rounded greenish root crops with a juicy, crunchy pulp. The variety has excellent keeping quality;
- Elephant fang - mid-ripening high-yielding stubborn variety with white roots up to 25 cm long;
- Healer Is a late-ripening variety that combines high taste and medicinal qualities. The roots are smooth, round, black, the flesh is white, dense, juicy and crunchy. The variety is ideal for salads and does not lose its qualities and elasticity for a long time.
In addition to those described, such European radish varieties as Munich Beer, Chernavka, Negritanka, Delikates, Odessa 5 are popular among gardeners.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the Cabbage family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
Sections: Cruciferous (Cabbage, Cabbage) Garden plants Honey plants Plants on R Root crops
Daikon - outdoor cultivation
Daikon, also called Japanese radish - a root vegetable crop, considered a type of radish. Delicious, juicy root vegetable, mild taste. Unlike radish, daikon does not contain mustard oils.
Let's take a closer look: planting daikon in open ground, timing of sowing daikon seeds, growing and caring for daikon, harvesting, storage of daikon in winter, useful properties of daikon.
Unlike radish daikon has a moderate aroma... There is nothing difficult in growing a daikon. Daikon vegetation lasts an average of 60-100 days, but there are early varieties that ripen in 45 days, they are suitable for growing in spring.
Growing lobo radish involves maintaining crop rotation, creating a favorable environment. To obtain a rich harvest, it is important to provide adequate care. With a lack of moisture, the roots become tough, bitter in taste. Incorrectly selected fertilizers will lead to a deterioration in appearance, cracking.
The plot must be open to sunlight. The culture does not tolerate lowland location. If it is impossible to choose another place, you need to form high beds and plant it not in the furrows, but on the ridge. This is done because excessive moisture leads to decay, cracking, and infection of root crops.
A high yield of Margelanskaya radish can be obtained when grown on light, nutritious soil. It is desirable to bring the acidity to neutral, a slightly acidic environment is acceptable. It is important to control the application of fertilizers, since an excess will lead to a change in taste, deformation of the vegetable, can cause the accumulation of nitrates and nitrites, and the appearance of diseases. If necessary, you can change the structure of the soil by adding sand or clay.
Despite the fact that traditionally the culture grows in a continental climate, it can be successfully cultivated throughout Russia. Landing in open ground is carried out in 2 approaches - in spring and summer. It is important to create optimal conditions for the plants. Suitable ambient temperature + 18-22 ° C. It is undesirable to grow a crop when the readings fall below + 15 ° C or rise above + 25 ° C, as this leads to flowering, which prevents the formation of a root crop, making it unsuitable for human consumption. The resistance of the variety to the release of the peduncle allows it to be cultivated in the southern regions without fear of losing the harvest.
When to plant radish in open ground with seeds
The timing of planting seeds in open ground depends on the variety and ripening period. The vegetable has a very short growing season. In most varieties, from the moment of germination to harvest, it takes from one and a half to two months. The root crop develops only under conditions of short daylight hours.
When to plant radish in Siberia
Given the climatic conditions of the Siberian region, early radish is sown in open ground until mid-May. With proper care, root crops are obtained in July-August.
It is customary to plant winter radish in Siberia in the second half of June. The harvest of late varieties ripens for about three months. Therefore, root crops for storage in winter have time to ripen before the onset of autumn frosts, even in the cold regions of Siberia.
When to plant radish in the suburbs
In the mild climate of the Moscow region and central Russia, early varieties are sown in open ground from the last decade of April to early May.
Summer varieties can be sown until early July. And late, winter ones - have time to give a good harvest of root crops, if sown is done in early August.
You can plant a radish before winter. The vegetable is cold-hardy enough for the seeds to remain viable under snow. Late varieties of radish are suitable for planting before winter.
How to care
Let's consider the main features of caring for black radish growing in the open field.
As mentioned above, for black radish it is important that the soil in the garden is slightly moistened all the time. Do not allow the soil to dry out - the plant can hardly tolerate thirst. Lack of moisture in the soil leads to a decrease in the taste of black radish and to hollow fruit.
And with the correct organization of watering, the culture gives an excellent harvest of large and juicy fruits. For one procedure, it is necessary to spend 10-12 liters of water per 1 m2 of the garden. Early ripening varieties are watered once a week, and late and mid-ripening varieties are watered three to four times during the growing season. It will also be helpful to learn how to properly water chicken droppings.
Since several seeds are planted in one hole at once during planting, thinning in the future is a necessary procedure. Moreover, several thinning will have to be carried out: from two to three.
In order for the radish to grow strong, strong and healthy, the soil in the garden bed must be light and loose. The loosening procedure is recommended to be carried out immediately after each watering. Among other things, when loosening, weeds in the garden are also destroyed, and simultaneous prophylaxis against pests is carried out.
Early maturing varieties are fed twice: the first time after the formation of the second leaf, and then a week after the first feeding. Nitrogen-containing compositions are used as additional food.
Late black radish needs a more thorough and in-depth approach to the diet. The culture in this case requires weekly feeding in the form of mineral fertilizers. To dilute the mixture, which is enough to process 20 m2 of the garden, you need to dissolve 60 g of superphosphate, 20 g of urea and 15-20 g of potassium chloride in a bucket of water. In addition to the mixed mineral nutrition, the late radish must also be separately supplied with nitrogen. It will also be useful to learn about how to feed beets with salt.
All feeding must be stopped 20-25 days before harvesting root crops.
To remove the lateral roots of the plant, and force the radish to feed through one main taproot, experienced gardeners periodically swing the root crop slightly. As a result, the radish grows large and juicy when it receives enough nutrition from its powerful central root.
Diseases and pests
Chionodox, which was planted outdoors, is susceptible to a number of diseases. You can face such ailments as fusarium, septoria, sclerotinosis, gray rot, achelenchoides. These diseases are harmful to the bulb and are usually not amenable to treatment, since the florist learns about their existence when nothing can be done. Therefore, in order to prevent, before planting, seed material must be treated with Fundazol, and during care, make sure that moisture does not linger in the soil.
As for pests, chionodox attracts only rodents and meadow mite larvae. To fight insects, acaricide is used, and mice and moles are disposed of with the help of poisonous baits.
Harvesting on time is essential to get healthy, tidy garlic. It is worth overexposing the heads in the ground, and they will lose their commercial qualities - the integumentary scales will begin to crack.
- Start digging out the crop as soon as the lower leaves turn yellow, and the tops will grow en masse. Garlic is harvested in dry weather. They dig in and pull them out of the ground.
- Do not immediately remove the dug garlic - it should lie in the beds for several days to dry out in the sun. The garlic dries out along with the stem. If it rains, you will have to move the crop under a canopy, and there it will dry for about 5 days.
- Trim the stems of dried garlic. The length of the stumps is 4-7 cm. Dry the heads in a well-ventilated area or under a canopy.
If you store the garlic in braids, do not cut the stems. If in bunches, leave the stem length 20 cm.
Leave a couple of garlic arrows on the arrowheads to determine when the garlic is ripe. When cracks appear on the shell of spherical inflorescences, you can safely pull out the garlic.
Garlic, properly harvested and dried, is well stored - does not deteriorate, does not rot. It can be kept under a canopy until the very cold, then it is transferred to baskets. The optimum storage temperature is 2-4 ° C.